Introduction to Geographic Information System

Geographic Information System is a computer-based framework that stores analyze and manages the data. Based on the science of geography, GIS integrates various types of data. Spatial locations are scanned and the information gathered is organized into visual geographic information usually in maps and 3D scenes. 

GIS uncovers deeper insights into the data such as situations, patterns, and relationships, helping the users to make smarter decisions.

Geographic Data System Components

Ground Penetrating Radar operates by transmitting high-frequency radio waves pulses down into the ground through an antenna. Ground Penetrating Radar is distinctly able at not only mapping buried structures but also relatively measuring their depth, and supplying an all-important thorough detail. The antenna is moved over the surface to be inspected. The transmitter redirects a diverging beam of energy which is reflected in various underground objects or different contacts between different earth materials.

GIS is principally performed by individuals, thus individuals are the main element in GIS. Solely individuals will outline and develop the procedures employed by a GIS and may add the direction of overcoming shortcomings of the opposite four components i.e. data, software, hardware, procedure, however, the opposite four product cannot do the same.

The information which is being used in the GIS is the data. Since we know that data in GIS is incorporated from different sources, so the level of its accuracy defines the quality of the GIS. And the quality determines the types of questions and problems which may be asked out of the GIS.

Software not only encloses the GIS package, but all other software used for databases, drawings, statistics, and imaging. How well the software has been used to manage the GIS determines the problem types that the GIS may be used to solve. The software used should be as per the needs and skills of the end user.

The speed at which GIS will function is largely determined by the type of hardware used. Also, it may influence the type of software used. It may also affect the type and personalities of the people involved in the GIS to some extent.

The procedures adopted to input, analyze, and enquire the data decides the quality and authenticity of the final product. The procedures being put to use are simple steps taken through precisely defined and consistently used methods to produce accurate and reproducible results from the GIS system.

Geographic Information Systems gives solutions to some about the queries relating to location, patterns, and trends.

GIS inputs include points, lines, polygons, and grids. If you need to find the closest gas station, GIS can help find you the way. Or if you want to find a specific location, you may need traffic volumes, zoning information, and demographics.

Ecologists looking to find out a suitable habitat for deers can gain a better understanding by using GPS collars and land cover.

GIS has helped so much in understanding climate change and remote sensing technology. Also, it helps in better evaluation of safety concerns using GIS such as understanding terrain slope and the probability of occurrence of an avalanche.

In case of building a new transmission line by an electricity company what will be the effect on nearby homes, the environment and safety. Almost all environmental assessments use GIS to understand the landscape.

Applications of GIS in Real World

Disaster Management – During floods the GIS could help give a street plan as to which streets are flooded and the extent to which they are.

Archeology – GIS can identify more elements and characteristics of environmental science

Crime Statistics – Used to get automated and digital mapping of the crime scenes.

Civic Planning – Useful tool for rural and urban planning.

Health Resource Management – Maps are used to identify and manage health resources.
GIS is something that certainly makes many jobs easier and faster and allows them to do more things in the same space of time with the click of a button.

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